The Differences in Coordination between Children with ADHD and Healthy Children Based on Two-
way ANOVA Analysis jihadi Liu1 Gao Yang1 fangzhong Xu minyan Zhou
1:Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China
2:Zhejiang Palit Hospital, Hangzhou, China
Abstract—This study attempts to invest the differences in movement coordination between children with ADHD and healthy children using two-way ANOVA. The experimental tasks are divided into simple tasks and complex tasks.
The goal of the experiments is to study the interaction in hand movements’ rhythm, accuracy, and error key response between task difficulty and subjects grouping while doing visual-motor integration tasks. The results show that: (1) There are no significant differences in all parameters except error number within-group differences. (2) There are significant differences in all parameters except correct response time between-group differences.
Keywords-task difficulty; ADHD; grouping; movement coordination
I. INTRODUCTION Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very
common in clinical, it is one of the most widely studied diseases in child psychiatry[1-5]. In recent years, it ranks in the first or second place in the child-patient cases, causing the whole society’s attention on children with ADHD.
Children with ADHD are often accompanied by developmental disabilities, the most common is developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This is a special developmental disorder, is characterized by obvious damage in motion coordination[4- 5]. Although motor coordination disorder and ADHD are two different developmental disorders, the studies find that ADHD is often accompanied by motor coordination disorders[6,7]. Although many of the motors need the participation of many senses, the visual sense is the most important. Visual-motor integration is developed firstly in sensorimotor integration, coordination between visual perception and hand movements reflects the coordination and unification between visual perception and activities.
At present, continuous performance tests (CPT) are used to evaluate attention disorders among children. A series of numbers or characters are shown on a computer monitor as stimulants in a CPT, subjects are required to make responses to certain targets, the reaction results are used to evaluate attention deficit. Error number in the tests is used to reflect the subjects’ attention deficit, false number reflects the impulse of subjects. Like that, the objectivity of evaluation has been improved greatly and the accuracy of clinical diagnostic is higher. Andrew L. Cohen  considers that CPT has moderate reliability and validity in the diagnosis of ADHD. Wang shu-yu, finds that in auditory continuity tests and audio-visual continuity tests, the reaction time of children with all ADHD subtypes are longer
than those of the control group, and the number of misstatements and omissions are significantly higher than those of the control group. However, And Gayle finds that the hit rate of ADHD children is lower than that of the normal control group in the single-target CPT, but in the sustained attention task, there is no significant difference between them. The reason may be the study ignores the temporal characteristics of attention, we should notice that attention changes over time, itself will produce the ups and downs over time, the performance of subjects is good at the beginning of the test, and then declines. The researchers on ADHD children’s cognitive mechanisms have unanimously recognized that children with ADHD lose more short-term attention than normal children, and their short-time attention of them has great fluctuations than that of normal children. Besides that, children appear to lose attention to the test if the test is distracting, this also needs to be examined depending on the time.
Raising the level of any researches is inseparable from the improvement of methods.