Autism Spectrum Disorder Case Study


Autism Spectrum Disorder

Dr. Katie Dabrowski, PT, DPT




• ASD is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior • Symptoms generally appear in the first 2 years of life • According to DSM-5, people with ASD have:

• Difficulty with communication and interaction with other people • Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors • Symptoms that hurt the person’s ability to function properly in school, work, and

other areas of life

• Autism is a “spectrum” disorder because there is great variation in type and severity of symptoms




Signs and Symptoms

• Social communication/interaction behaviors: • Making little or inconsistent eye contact • Tending not to look at or listen to people • Rarely sharing enjoyment of objects or activities by pointing or showing things to others • Failing to, or being slow to, respond to someone calling their name or to other verbal attempts

to gain attention

• Having difficulties with the back and forth of conversation • Often talking at length about a favorite subject without noticing that others are not interested

or without giving others a chance to respond

• Having facial expressions, movements, and gestures that do not match what is being said • Having an unusual tone of voice that may sound sing-song or flat and robot-like • Having trouble understanding another person’s point of view or being unable to predict or

understand other people’s actions




Signs and Symptoms

• Restrictive/repetitive behaviors • Repeating certain behaviors or having unusual behaviors. For

example, repeating words or phrases, a behavior called echolalia • Having a lasting intense interest in certain topics, such as numbers,

details, or facts • Having overly focused interests, such as with moving objects or

parts of objects • Getting upset by slight changes in a routine • Being more or less sensitive than other people to sensory input,

such as light, noise, clothing, or temperature NIMH



Signs and Symptoms

• But there are strengths, too! • Being able to learn things in detail and remember information for

long periods of time

• Being strong visual and auditory learners • Excelling in math, science, music, or art




Neuroanatomical and Neurodevelopmental Basis of ASD



Altered brain growth

• One consistent finding in ASD is altered brain growth • The clinical onset of autism appears to occur after two phases of brain growth abnormalities:

1. Reduced head size at birth 2. Then a sudden and excessive increase between 1-2 months and 6-14 months of age

• In addition to these initial two phases, it is also shown that an abnormal pattern of brain growth also occurs in areas of the frontal lobe, cerebellum, and limbic structures between 2-4 years of age • An abnormal slowness in brain growth then follows this initial growth • We know that these regions are intimately involved with developing social, communication, and motor

abilities that are impaired in ASD

• Head circumference >75th percentile is linked with more impaired adaptive behaviors • Studies show increased brain volume but decreased inter-regional brain connectivity in ASD

patients, which could result in poor integration of brain areas, resulting in neurobehavioral developmental issues

modernization social-cultural progression


In the readings on Family by Joel Moraco, the author mentions several characteristics of the modern family which have evolved along with modernization and social-cultural progression.

For instance, the traditional divisions of labor, family roles, marital expectations, incidence and attitudes towards divorce, gender roles, and societal and cultural norms. Briefly describe any TWO of these modern trends. Why do you consider these trends to be most interesting and why?

Be sure to cite your work using APA format. If you have questions about APA format, refer to the “APA Style Resources” module posted in the classroom.

2) In order to make this course relevant to your interests and needs, please identify 2-3 questions about parenting that you would like to have answered by the end of the course.

For all discussions in this course, you should post an initial response to the discussion prompts by Sunday evening at 11:59 PM ET, then respond substantively to at least two classmates by Tuesday evening at 11:59 PM ET.

When replying to your classmates, think about what you can contribute that will add to the discussion and cause your classmates to think more deeply about the topic.

If you notice that a classmate is confused or sharing information that is not supported by research or your readings, think about how you might guide or mentor that classmate to better understand the material. We should all work to build understanding, especially when it comes to a topic as important as parenting.

Cultural Basis Of Parenting


This week, we look into the influence of nature and nurture, delve into the controversy over parental influence, examine the historical and social contexts of family influence, look into scientifically proven best-and not the best practices of parenting.

We look further at the influence of the social and cultural environment that shapes parenting practices and beliefs, especially in the context of the modern connected world and the melting pot of our modern, diverse society.

Week 2 Objectives

>Describe the effects of early environment on child development in relation to the type of environment provided by the parent.

>Compare and contrast the effects of nature and nurture in the context of parenting, specifically on how this influences the developing child.

>Critically evaluate the evidence relating to the controversy of the degree of parental influence on children.

>Explain how social and cultural environment shapes parenting practices, attitudes and belief systems.

Read -1980

1980s: Galinsky – Parenting and Family Diversity Issues (

The Nature-Nurture Question | Noba (

ProQuest Ebook Central – Reader

ProQuest Ebook Central – Reader

Parenting: Challenges, Practices and Cultural Influences (

Validity & Reliability of a Burnout Scale


Empirical Articles

Assessing Burnout in Portuguese Health Care Workers who Care for the Dying: Validity and Reliability of a Burnout Scale Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

Carol Gouveia Melo*a, David Oliverab

[a] Centre for Professional Practice, University of Kent, Chatham, United Kingdom. [b] Wisdom Hospice, Rochester, United Kingdom.

Abstract Aims: The aim of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure levels of burnout in Health Care Workers (HCWs) who care for dying patients and confirm the validity and reliability of the scale.

The Burnout scale for workers who care for dying patients was created in 2005, by Gouveia Melo, using items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Human Services Survey) (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1997), the Burnout Test (Service Fields) (Jerabek, 2001) and items specifically designed for burnout in end-of-life care.

Method: The scale was validated with 280 HCWs working in oncology hospitals and in community home care in different parts of the country. The psychometric methods used were exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis (PCA), Cronbach’s α coefficients, and intra-class correlation coefficients. Results: The initial 40 items were submitted to analysis for suitability of the data and 38 items were chosen for PCA.

Results showed 3 main components with 36 items explaining a total of 34.29% of the variance. These factors were emotional exhaustion (15 items), professional fulfillment (14 items) and depersonalization (7 items). Cronbach’s α coefficients were .86 for emotional exhaustion, .83 for professional fulfillment and .63 for depersonalization.

Pearson bivariate correlations were performed on the 150 participants, with an interval of 4 months for test-retest purposes with intra-class correlations from .55 to .59 in each domain. Convergent and divergent validation showed significant correlations. Conclusions: The validity and reliability of this scale was established, enabling it to be used within the Portuguese population.

Keywords: burnout, scale, validation, palliative care, oncology

Psychology, Community & Health, 2012, Vol. 1(3), 257–272, doi:10.5964/pch.v1i3.21

Received: 2012-06-24. Accepted: 2012-09-07. Published: 2012-11-30.

*Corresponding author at: Rua Gil Vicente 12, Bloco C R/C, 2775-198 Parede, Portugal, email:

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Feeding Correlates of Maternal Concern


Research Article

Feeding and Mealtime Correlates of Maternal Concern About Children’s WeightJacqueline M. Branch, MD1; Danielle P. Appugliese, MPH2; Katherine L. Rosenblum, PhD3,4; Alison L. Miller, PhD4,5; Julie C. Lumeng, MD1,4,6; Katherine W. Bauer, PhD6


1Departm School, 2 Appugl 3Departm 4Center 5 Departm Public H 6Departm Arbor, M Conflict o with thi Address Develop MI 4810 �2017 S reserved http://dx



Objective: To examine associations between maternal concern regarding their children becoming overweight and two domains of weight-related parenting; child feeding practices and family meal charac- teristics. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Low-income mothers (n ¼ 264; 67% non-Hispanic white) and their children (51.5% male, aged 4.02–8.06 years). Variables Measured: Maternal concern and feeding practices, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Meal characteristics were assessed using video-recorded meals and meal information collected from mothers. Analysis: The authors used MANOVA and logistic regression to identify differences in maternal feeding practices and family meal characteristics across levels of maternal concern (none, some, and high). Results: Approximately half of mothers were not concerned about their child becoming overweight, 28.4% reported some concern, and 19.0% had high concern. Mothers reporting no concern described lower restrictive feeding compared with mothers who reported some or high concern (mean [SE], none ¼ 3.1 [0.1]; some ¼ 3.5 [0.1]; and high ¼ 3.6 [0.1]; P ¼ .004). No differences in other feeding practices or family meal characteristics were observed by level of concern. Conclusions and Implications: Concern regarding children becoming overweight was common. However, concern rarely translated into healthier feeding practices or family meal characteristics. Maternal concern alone may not be sufficient to motivate action to reduce children’s risk of obesity. Key Words: childhood obesity, maternal concern, feeding practices, family meals (J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017;49:490-496.)

Accepted March 16, 2017. Published online April 28, 2017.


Despite the heightened attention to childhood obesity over the pastdecade, several studies documented that only a limited proportion ofparents recognize that their children are overweight, and

ent of Pediatrics and Communicable Ann Arbor, MI iese Professional Advisors, North Easto ent of Psychiatry, University of Mich

for Human Growth and Development ent of Health Behavior and Health Ed ealth, Ann Arbor, MI ent of Nutritional Sciences, University I f Interest Disclosure: The authors’ confli s article on for correspondence: Jacqueline M. Bra ment, 300 North Ingalls Bldg, Rm 1024 9; Phone: (716) 785-2244; Fax: (734) 93 ociety for Nutrition Education and Beh .

relatively few parents reported concern about their children’s current weight or future risk of becoming overweight.1-6

Parents of young children and lower socioeconomic status in particular reported less concern about their children’s current or future risk of overweight than did

Diseases, University of Michigan Medical

n, MA igan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI ucation, University of Michigan School of

of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann

ct of interest disclosures can be found online

nch, MD, Center for Human Growth and NW, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 6-6897; E-mail: avior.

Functional Behavior Assessment




Student: Jeff Jones Date of Report: February 21, 2017 Date of Birth: Chronological Age: 12 School Name: Gold School Home Address: Jack and Molly Jones Reporter: Joanna Mackin

Reason for Referral

Joanna Mackin initiated this Functional Behavior Assessment as a part of the requirements for a graduate class in Behavior Analysis. There were two reasons for selecting Jeff Jones.

His, teachers Ms. Mackin and Ms. Hannah Akiyama, as well as his parents, were concerned about the lack of growth over the 2015-2016 school year. The second reason involves the behaviors that are impeding that academic growth.

Over the course of the 2015-2016 school year Ms. Mackin & Ms. Akiyama worked with a counselor at Gold School to create a plan that would address the behaviors that were affecting Jeff’s learning. While this plan helped some in the 2015-2016 school year, we continued to see the same behaviors at the beginning of the 2016-2017 school year.

The behaviors identified for investigation include noncompliance, exaggerated response to physical discomfort, negative statements about himself or others, and difficulty beginning tasks.

Background Information

Jeff is a 12-year old boy who lives at home with his family in Honolulu. Jeff resides with his parents, Jack and Molly Jones and his younger sister, Melissa, who is 9 years old. Jeff lives with his parents and younger sister on the lower level of a two level house.

His grandparents, an aunt, and cousins live upstairs. Jeff is currently enrolled in Gold School. which serves students’ with learning differences, primarily language based. This means that Jeff is in a class of students his age and grade level with similar learning challenges.

Information Sources

Record Review Assets Student Profile 2015-2016 Assets School Intake Folder: Psychologist’s Educational Diagnostic Report Interviews Jack Jones, Father, February 11, 2017 Hannah Akiyama, Classroom Teacher, January 16,17,18, 23 2017



Catherine Sharp, Music Teacher, February 3, 2017 Lilly Plat, Performing Arts Teacher, January 18, 2017 Jeff Jones, Student, February 11, 2017 Observations Classroom, From November 7th, 2016 to January 8th, 2017 Art class, Wednesday, January 25, 2017 Music Class, Friday, February 10, 2017 Record Review Assets School Student Profile 2015-2014 Jeff’s Academic Goals: Jeff’s Decoding Goal is to show improvement in decoding skills (p.4) which

would move his functional grade level from Ending 2nd to Middle to Ending 3rd (p. 3)

Jeff’s Reading Comprehension Goal is to develop critical thinking and problem

solving skills relative to reading. The second Reading Comprehension Goal is to demonstrate growth in study skills relative to reading. (p. 4)

Jeff’s Spelling Goals are: to achieve growth in spelling skills; effectively utilize

technology tools; demonstrate competency in critical thinking and problem solving skills relative to writing; showing growth in expressing himself in writing assignments; and demonstrating growth in study skills relative to expository and narrative writing such as note taking and outlining. To show growth in these areas Jeff’s functional grade level would move from Middle 2nd to Beginning to Middle 3rd. (p. 5)

Jeff’s Mathematics Goals are: showing growth in math computation;

demonstrating critical thinking and problem solving skills relative to mathematical concepts and applications; and demonstrating the ability to effectively utilize technological tools like calculators. To show growth in these areas Jeff’s functional grade level would move from Middle 3rd to Beginning to Middle 4th in computation and from beginning to middle 2nd to beginning to middle 3rd in Concepts and Applications. (p. 6)

Jeff’s Social Adaptation Goals: Jeff’s Social Adaptation Goals are: demonstrating growth in becoming a confident

and responsible lifelong learner; effectively participating and contributing in a multicultural community; showing growth in advocating for self in academic and social situations; developing appropriate organizational, time management and self-monitoring skills; and demonstrating growth in coping and problem-solving skills. (p. 8)

Technical Assistance Center Thesis


Exercise Content

  1. Assignment 2
    From the Technical Assistance Center on Social and Emotional Development. They define FBA as:
    “Functional Behavioral Assessment involves the collection of data, observations, and information to develop a clear understanding of the relationship of events and circumstances that trigger and maintain problem behavior.”
    Three components of a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA):
    • Descriptive Assessment (Indirect and Direct Assessment collects data)
    • Data Analysis
    • Hypothesis Development (based on analysis of data what you believe is the function of the behavior)

    In this exercise evaluate the FBA and write up your assessment of the analysis looking at the three components. Provide suggestions/recommendations as you see it if you were the behavior analyst supervisor. Finally your rational for why you think this is a good or not good functional behavioral assessment. There is no page limit BUT your evaluation must be thorough. 

independent variables thesis

Layout the design for two between-subjects experiments: a) an experiment involving an experimental group and a control group, and b) a factorial design with three independent variables that have three, and two levels respectively.

Class – this one is tricky. We are more than halfway through the course, so it’s going to start to pick up in rigor. You will need to carefully read all materials to get an understanding of the research design. You need to have IVs and levels on the IV.

A two-group design is defined as having one independent variable with two distinct levels: the experimental group and the control group (Myers & Hansen, 2012).

Experimental designs will allow for random assignment to each group, whereas quasi-experimental designs will have pre-determined groups, such as age or gender. To contrast, factorial designs will typically have more than one independent variable with two or more levels on each factor (Myers & Hansen, 2012).

Let’s say I want to know if stress impacts memory. I have two different ways that I’m going to go about it: The first is with a two-group design where I just want to see how people that report any amount of stress do on a memory test.

In the second experiment, I want to dig a little deeper to see how different amounts of stress, different amounts of sleep, and gender impact memory (measured by performance on a memory test). Here is how I will set up each of my experiments:

Two Group Design

IV: Stress

·      Level 1: Control group = No stress

·      Level 2: Experimental group = Stress

DV: Performance on a Memory Test

Factorial Design (3x2x2) – Remember, the amount of numbers is how many IVs there are. In this case, I will have 3 IVs. Do you see it? The actual numbers indicate how many levels on each IV there are. In this case, I will have 3 levels on the first IV, 2 levels on the second IV, and 2 levels on the third IV. Here is an example:

IV1: Stress

·      Level 1: Low

·      Level 2: Moderate

·      Level 3: High

IV2: Sleep

·      Level 1: 5-6 hours/night

·      Level 2: 7-8 hours/night

IV3: Gender

·      Level 1: Women

·      Level 2: Men

DV: Performance on a Memory Test

As you can see, I’ve created two quasi-experimental designs. Your designs can be quasi-experimental or you can design true experiments. The idea is that you understand how to set up a two-group design, as well as a factorial. Give it a shot!


Myers, A., & Hansen, C. H. (2012). Experimental psychology (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. ISBN-13: 9780495602316

Limitations and problems-design




Capstone Proposal


DeAnna Fleming

Grand Canyon University


Professor Carter

January 9, 2022


Thesis statement: the main purpose of this paper is to discuss research designs, identify variables as well as explaining sampling and limitations.

Case studies

These particular case studies have followed an international classification of functioning, health and disability, and have studied the sensory modulation among adults who has learning disability while they are sleeping. These studies have involved one hundred and ten people with a mean age of thirty years (Sharfi, & Rosenblum n.d.).

They were analyzed through questionnaires, Mann-whitey test and Chi-test. After analyzing, half of the sample had learning disabilities while the other half was a control group that had no learning disability. These studies were conducted in order to determine the relationship in the hypothesis.


The hypothesis of these studies stated that by studying the picture of how adults suffering from learning disability operates in a population will be made comprehensive. By giving every group different questionnaires from the other group as well as observing them while they were asleep, the researcher was in a position to analyze body function as well as motion.

The results that the researcher obtained stated that the largest percentage of the people who had learning disabilities were not married, had no children, and attended more than one school. The researcher also stated that one of the main reasons as to why those people had learning disability is because they could have mental illnesses such as stress as well as depression.

For instance, people who are incapable of bearing children are more prone to stress as well as depression than people who decide not to bear children (Sharfi & Rosenblum n.d.). Therefore, the researcher stated that these mental illnesses might be one of the key factors that could have led those people to suffer from learning disabilities.

Through the findings of these studies, hypotheses were deduced to be true in that people that were suffering from learning disabilities were to be accommodated in a health care facility setting as well as in a regular population.

Limitations and problems

These case studies have some strengths as well as limitations. For instance, some of the strengths that I have learned from these studies is that using quasi-experimental design in comparison to a control group enabled some measured to be used that could also be utilized for various different types of studies on sleep as well as sensory (Sharfi, & Rosenblum n.d.).

Also, the sample population that was being used in these studies was not selected randomly but were selected in a systematic manner, thus aiding the ability to match the studies not only in the future but also to the past studies that have been conducted that could help in crediting the outcomes.

On the other hand, some of the limitations of these studies is that there were certain requirements in order to learn the disability among the one hundred and ten participants that had bias on the form of disability the studies were attentive too.

The second limitation that I have identified from these studies was that the studies were on-self reports; therefore, there were no other measures that could have created more accurate views concerning the participant’s responses other than individual biases.



The results that the researcher obtained from these studies show that people with learning disabilities have unique characteristics that would be taken into consideration in regard to the function of the population as well as that of the society. Through the diverse relationship that an individual’s body has with the environment control and the awareness of the situation, the participants with learning disabilities showed lower quality of sleep, thus indicating that their daily participation was much affected by the learning disability that those people were suffering from.

















Sharfi, K., & Rosenblum, S. (n.d.). Sensory Modulation and Sleep Quality among Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Quasi-Experimental Case-Control Design Study. PLOS ONE, 10(2).

Experimental Design Thesis

For this assignment, again, it is beneficial that you keep the topic you would like to research for the capstone proposal in mind. The capstone will require a literature review for your proposal, of which you may use articles obtained during this course.

Select a peer-reviewed, experimental research study that exemplifies a two-group design (two independent groups design, two matched groups design, or repeated measures design) and a factorial design (use keywords method, results, and discussion in your Boolean search). These studies can be found using tools such as the GCU Library and Google Scholar.
In 500-750-words:

  1. Compare the two research designs
  2. Identify the independent variable(s), dependent variable, and any possible extraneous variable
  3. Identify main effects and interactions for the factorial design
  4. Explain if the study has a random sample and/or random assignment? Were there other limitations that were noticed?

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.