Principles of Psychology thesis


PSY-101: Principles of Psychology

Chapter 10: Motivation



MOTIVATION From the latin “movere” → to move

● Factors that direct and energize the goal directed behavior of humans and other organisms ○ In other words, why we are “moved” to do the

things we do




● To be motivated intrinsically suggests that we are “moved” to action from within

● To be motivated extrinsically suggests that we are “moved” to action from without



INTRINSIC AND/OR EXTRINSIC ● It doesn’t have to be one or the other

○ For any activity, we can be: ■ Just intrinsically motivated ■ Just extrinsically motivated ■ Both intrinsically AND extrinsically motivated ■ Neither intrinsically or extrinsically motivated



THE EFFECT OF REWARDS ● Some rewards (i.e., extrinsic motivators) can

decrease our intrinsic motivation ○ e.g., Tangible rewards like MONEY

● Other rewards, however, can increase intrinsic motivation ○ e.g., Non-tangible rewards like PRAISE




● The Instinct Perspective ● Drive-Reduction Theory ● Self-Efficacy Theory ● Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs



INSTINCT PERSPECTIVE ● Our behavior is driven by our instincts

○ Instincts are innate (i.e., unlearned) patterns of behavior ■ e.g., Eating, sleeping, having sex

● Ignores the role of learning in the shaping of our motivated behavior



DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY ● We are driven (i.e., “motivated”) to reduce our needs in

order to maintain physical and psychological homeostasis ○ Primary drives are based within our instincts

■ e.g., the need for food drives us to the refrigerator ○ Secondary drives are learned

■ e.g., the need for money drives us to go to work

● Adds to the instinct perspective by including learned drives




● One’s expectation of success in an activity or task ○ i.e., “can I successfully do this?” → it’s a belief! ○ Can range from very low to very high depending on

the activity

● A high self-efficacy predicts a high level of motivation ● A low self-efficacy predicts a low level of motivation






MASLOW’S HIERARCHY ● Suggests that before higher-order needs (e.g., self-worth)

can be met, certain primary needs (e.g., food) must be satisfied

● Ends in self-actualization ○ A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest

potential ○ People can “transcend” and begin to focus on the needs of others ○ Not many get here!