ethical and legal issues.
Professional Development Exercises :Read the case study presented at the end of Chapter 8 (Guido, p. 150)The patient was to undergo a fundoplication surgery to repair anesophageal hernia. The procedure involves the insertion of an esoph-ageal dilator, which at this institution is performed by the anesthesiateam. In this particular instance, the dilator was to be inserted by anursing anesthesia student. The student introduced herself to thepatient immediately before the procedure. She used her first nameonly and stated that she was a registered nurse who would be work-ing with the nurse anesthetist and the anesthesiologist. The studentreferred to the nurse anesthetist by first and last names and to theanesthesiologist using the term doctor and his last name.During the insertion of the dilator, the student tore the lin-ing of the esophagus. This required an open procedure to be per-formed, which resulted in complications for the patient. Thepatient sued for lack of informed consent, inadequate supervi-sion, and negligence. Specifically, the patient argued that he hadthe right to know if a student was to perform any part of the pro-cedure and that he had the right to refuse such participation.The court returned a verdict in favor of the patient on thepart of inadequate supervision. As stated in the institution’s writ-ten policies, the student was to be supervised by an anesthesiolo-gist, not merely a nurse anesthetist.Is the patient correct in asserting that he has a right to know the names and status of individuals who will be performing this procedure?Does the manner in which the student introduced herself and the two other team members have relevance in this case?Was the informed consent deficient to the degree that there was a lack of informed consent by the patient?How would you decide this case?A patient is admitted to your surgical center for a breast biopsy under local anesthesia. The surgeon has previously informed the patient of the procedure, risks, alternatives, desired outcomes, and possible complications. You give the surgery permit form to the patient for her signature. She readily states that she knows about the procedure and has no additional questions; she signs the form with no hesitation. Her husband, who is visiting with her, says he is worried that something may be said during the procedure to alarm his wife. What do you do at this point? Do you alert the surgeon that informed consent has not been obtained? Do you request that the surgeon revisit the patient and reinstruct her about the surgery? Since the patient has already signed the form, is there anything more you should do?Now consider the ethical issues that such a scenario raises. Which ethical principles is the husband in this example most portraying? Which ethical principles should guide the nurse in working with this patient and family member?Jimmy Chang, a 20- year- old college student, is admitted to your institution for additional chemotherapy. Jimmy was diagnosed with leukemia 5 years earlier and has had several courses of chemotherapy. He is currently in an acute active phase of the disease, though he had enjoyed a 14- month remission phase prior to this admission. His parents, who accompany him to the hospital, are divided as to the benefits of additional chemotherapy. His mother is adamant that she will sign the informed consent form for this course of therapy, and his father is equally adamant that he will refuse to sign the informed consent form because “Jimmy has suffered enough.”You are his primary nurse and must assist in somehow resolving this impasse. What do you do about the informed consent form? Who signs and why? Using the MORAL model, decide the best course of action for Jimmy from an ethical perspective rather than a legal perspective. Did you come to the same conclusion using both an ethical and a legal approachCreate an APA essay with 1500-1800 words, complete the following questions using 4 scholarly sources to support your perspective. please an introduction and conclusion needed.