Antibodies are produced by:
Mast cell degranulation decreases:
histamine, neutrophil chemotactic factor, and leukotrienes.
histamine and prostaglandins.
histamine and platelet-activating factor.
histamine, IL-4, and eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis.
Antibody is effective against:
expression of MHC molecules.
viral protein synthesis.
CD4 markers are associated with:
cytotoxic T cells.
suppressor T cells.
helper T cells.
The sequence of inflammatory events within the vasculature is:
slower blood flow, arteriolar vasoconstriction, increased capillary permeabilty, edema.
blood becoming more viscous, vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, edema.
vasodilation, vasoconstriction, decreased local blood flow to injured site, edema.
arteriolar vasoconstriction, vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, plasma leakage, edema
The inflammatory response:
minimizes injury and promotes healing.
elevates body temperature to prevent spread of infection.
prevents the formation of abscesses.
prevents blood from entering the injured tissue.
Cytotoxic T cells:
inhibit virus-infected cells.
inhibit viral protein synthesis.
inhibit intracellular viruses.
decrease expression of MHC molecules.
Characteristic systemic manifestations of acute inflammation include:
fever caused by the release of IL-1 by neutrophils and macrophages.
reduced host susceptibility to the effects of endotoxins.
a “right shift” in the ratio of immature to mature neutrophils.
Innate resistance or immunity
Is a development of an individual’s later yearsc.
Is a relatively slow and specific process
Depends on physical, mechanical, and biochemical barriers
Cytokines and their receptors function:
as negative regulators of acquired immune responses.
as intracellular chemical signals.
aschemical signals between cells.
to decrease the production of proteins.