There are 2 quesitions with two parts both parts of the question must be address in a minium of 250 words.
· compare and contrast the educational opportunities available to Pakistani girls and women amidst their displacement in the face of the violence and dire living conditions in the country. Specify two (2) specific opportunities you believe would be the most effective given the current context. Provide a rationale for your response.
· Posit whether or not that U.S. popular musicians, athletes and actors/actresses exert an important influence on shaping the behavior of people regarding matters like global poverty. Support for your position should include a discussion of current attempts to raise awareness on the issue.
- suggest at least two (2) strategies in which the European Union (EU), Inter-governmental Organizations (IGOs), and/or Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) could implement to reduce acts of piracy at an international level of public administration. Provide a rationale for your response.
- Propose the principal manner in which the actors and methods utilized by that IGOs, NGOs, or transnational advocacy networks influence international politics overall. Justify your response.
· The Problem of Global Inequality
Although world wealth has increased dramatically since World War II, poverty remains high in many places, and by some measures inequality is increasing. Billions of people live on incomes that by any western standard are considered poverty. This has led many to ask why poverty is so persistent, especially in certain places and what can be done to reduce poverty and inequality.
Some people might ask why we should address poverty in the world. There are two main reasons. First, there are normative reasons to reduce poverty. It is simply the right thing to do. The other reason is self-interest. Poverty causes many other problems, like terrorism, crime, and health threats.
There are many different measures of poverty. They include per capita GDP, purchasing power parity, poverty level, the Gini coefficient that measures inequality, and the Gender Development Index. These measures tell us that Asian and Central European countries have seen a decrease in poverty and inequality, while countries in Africa have made almost no progress. They also tell us that inequality is decreasing between countries, but it is increasing within countries.
Today, poverty is a major concern for the international community, but that hasn’t always been the case. Historically, there was a relatively low level of inequality across states. This began to change in the nineteenth century. By the year 1900, European states had average incomes that were ten times those of Asian countries. It is unclear why this happened, but scholars have put forth several explanations. Some believe that Europeans simply discovered how to generate wealth. Others believe that colonialism helped spur economic development in Europe. Many, though, believe that Europe simply developed better economic and political institutions, but, even if that is the case, it does not necessarily follow that other states can follow the same path. This is because states that develop later must face the problem of late development.
Early developers enjoy what economists call first-mover advantages. They include economies of scale, network effects, and investment funds. Strategies for overcoming late development include import substitution, state socialism, and export-led growth. Other strategies include a free market approach with minimal state intervention. This strategy is embodied in the Washington Consensus. Those who support this approach point to the success of the Asian Tigers as evidence of its effectiveness, but many contend that the East Asian states were not examples of a liberal development strategy. They point out that none of the states were democracies, and the government took an active role in the economy. As a result, this has led some to suggest that successful development requires a strong or “developmental” state. Today, there seems to be an emerging consensus that successful development will include both the free market and the developmental state.
In an effort to combat poverty and reduce inequality, states, individuals, and international organizations have used a number of approaches and strategies. In the 1960s, there was a focus on basic human needs that was aimed at the short-term alleviation of poverty. Later, international organizations engaged in efforts to strengthen the financial basis of a country’s economy. This was called structural adjustment. More recently, there has been a focus on good governance.
There is considerable debate on whether and how aid actually contributes to development. Some believe that aid does more harm than good. The World Bank is the primary vehicle for multilateral aid. It works by giving loans to countries in need, but it is subject to a variety of criticisms. Many believe that it may leave recipients with a great deal of debt and little benefit. Others reject the conditions that come with the loans.
Bilateral foreign aid is another major source of foreign aid. Bilateral foreign aid is given directly from one government to another. It is often used as a tool of foreign policy. For example, Afghanistan and Israel have been the top recipients of U.S. aid.
While there have been a variety of attempts to combat poverty and reduce inequality, there are still billions living in poverty. Global poverty and inequality will likely remain serious problems for decades to come.
International Law, Norms, and Human Rights
International law is a set of rules and obligations that states recognize as binding on each other. It addresses a wide range of issues between states, including the conduct of war, treaty obligations, and trade. Among theories of international politics, international law is an area of dispute. Realists believe that power politics will always trump international law, while liberals see international law as an essential part of international politics. Economic structuralists agree with realists that international law is heavily biased in favor of the powerful, but they also agree with liberals that international law is a possible tool to even the playing field. Constructivists build on the liberal argument, seeing international law as a codification of shared norms and an expression of shared purpose. Feminists see international law as a means to redress injustice.
Historically, states have tried to strengthen the role of international law. After World War I, states devised the League of Nations to prevent war, but World War II made many believe that international law was pointless. After World War II, the convention against genocide and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted. Nuclear weapons have presented a challenge for international law with the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as the major success in that area.
There are three major sources of international law, including treaties, custom, and general principles of law. Other sources also include judiciary rulings and the opinions of experts, as well as international organizations, like the European Union’s Council of Parliament.
The enforcement of international law is more complicated than the enforcement of domestic law. Enforcement can occur through judgment, which can come from an international court, an international organization, or a unilateral determination by a country. One source of judgment is the International Court of Justice. Another is the World Trade Organization’s Dispute Settlement Body. While enforcement is important, voluntary compliance is more important in international law. International law has a significant influence on state behavior, but it is not necessarily through the fear of punishment. International regimes and international norms also have a significant influence on state’s behavior.
An increasingly salient area of international law is human rights. Today, norms are chancing concerning the relative weight of human rights versus state sovereignty. Human rights have also been central to recent high profile issues, including military intervention in the former Yugoslavia and treatment of suspected terrorists. There are five broad categories of human rights, which include personal rights, rights in law, political rights, economic and social rights, and community rights. Threats to human rights come from a variety of sources, including governments, conflict, poverty, and natural disasters. Many are working to improve the protection of human rights, including transnational advocacy networks, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations. The protection of human rights presents a challenge because it clashes with the Westphalian concept of sovereignty.