Factorial Analysis Of Variance Thesis

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Factorial Analysis Of Variance Thesis


The Differences in Coordination between Children with ADHD and Healthy Children Based on Two-

way ANOVA Analysis jihadi Liu1 Gao Yang1 fangzhong Xu minyan Zhou

1:Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China


2:Zhejiang Palit Hospital, Hangzhou, China

Abstract—This study attempts to invest the differences in movement coordination between children with ADHD and healthy children using two-way ANOVA. The experimental tasks are divided into simple tasks and complex tasks.

The goal of the experiments is to study the interaction in hand movements’ rhythm, accuracy, and error key response between task difficulty and subjects grouping while doing visual-motor integration tasks.

The results show that: (1) There are no significant differences in all parameters except error number within-group differences. (2) There are significant differences in all parameters except correct response time between-group differences.

Keywords-task difficulty; ADHD; grouping; movement coordination

I. INTRODUCTION Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very

common in clinical, it is one of the most widely studied diseases in child psychiatry[1-5]. In recent years, it ranks in the first or second place in the child-patient cases, causing the whole society’s attention on children with ADHD.

Children with ADHD are often accompanied by developmental disabilities, the most common is developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This is a special developmental disorder, is characterized by obvious damage in motion coordination[4- 5].

Although motor coordination disorder and ADHD are two different developmental disorders, the studies find that ADHD is often accompanied by motor coordination disorders[6,7].

Although many of the motors need the participation of many senses, the visual sense is the most important. Visual-motor integration is developed firstly in sensorimotor integration, coordination between visual perception and hand movements reflects the coordination and unification between visual perception and activities[8].

At present, continuous performance tests (CPT) are used to evaluate attention disorders among children. A series of numbers or characters are shown on a computer monitor as stimulants in a CPT, subjects are required to make responses to a certain target, the reaction results are used to evaluate attention deficit.

Error number in the tests is used to reflect the subjects’ attention deficit, false number reflects the impulse of subjects. Like that, the objectivity of evaluation has been improved greatly and the accuracy of clinical diagnostic is higher.

Andrew L. Cohen [4] considers that CPT has moderate reliability and validity in the diagnosis of ADHD. Wang shu-yu[5], finds that in auditory continuity tests and audio-visual continuity tests, the reaction time of children with all ADHD subtypes is longer than those of the control group and the number of misstatements and omissions are significantly higher than those of the control group.