Effects of Feedback on Working Memory: Implications of Student Learning
Research has shown a massive difference in the effects of feedback on learning. In the classroom, feedback is the information given by teachers and students’ pupils to assess themselves and each other and for teachers to modify the teaching and learning activities, they are engaged in. Feedback given as rewards or grades enhances ego.
（Butler, 1988). Furthermore, those with ego-involvement have a mindset focusing on competitive performance, so they are willing to take on new challenges and learn from failure （Dweck, 2000).
It connects to Xu（2017）’s study: as learners listen, digest, implement and give feedback about what they should have done, it forces the brain to engage in a heavy mental uplifting, thus fostering comprehension and retention.
Doing this helps expand the warehouse and remember what a learner has learned more easily since this involves a lot of information processing. The process that happens in learners’ brains is so-called working memory.
Working memory is one of the brain’s executive functions. It is a skill that allows us to work with information without losing track of what we are doing. Working memory is crucial in learning and can hold and manipulate information mentally over a short period (Stevenson, 2017).
Research has shown that approximately ten percent of people have weak working memory (Kim, & Christianson, 2017). Poor memory is one of the most significant contributors to learning difficulties.
There have been reported cases of individuals failing to report even a single array of visual working capacity correctly (Namaziandost et al., 2018). Working memory failures are widespread.
On the contrary, ，having an excellent working memory helps the learners to be able to hold the information taught long enough to use it, and it also plays a significant role in concentration and following the instructions given.
Thus，how do we improve students’ working memory during learning？