Journal of Attention Disorders 2017, Vol. 21(4) 316 –322 © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1087054714530782 journals.sagepub.com/home/jad
ADHD is one of the most common childhood neuropsy- chological disorders, causing difficulties in academic, social, emotional, and behavioral domains (Barkley, 1990; LeFever, Villers, & Morrow, 2002; Pelham & Bender, 1982). Due to these problems, it was previously assumed that children with ADHD would have lower self-confi- dence than those without (Hoza & Pelham, 1995; Slomkowski, Klein, & Mannuzza, 1995; Treuting & Hinshaw, 2001). However, researchers have recently dis- covered that children and adults with ADHD actually appear to have a positive illusory bias (PIB) toward them- selves, meaning that they tend to rate themselves as higher functioning in social and academic situations than teach- ers, parents, and peers rate them (see Owens, Goldfine, Evangelista, Hoza, & Kaiser, 2007, for review). Similarly, when comparing objective measures of these domains with their self-reports, ADHD children’s self-perception is usu- ally an overestimation of their actual performance (Hoza et al., 2000; Hoza et al., 2001; Manor et al., 2012). This phenomenon has been found in both genders (Hoza et al., 2004) and different ADHD subtypes (Swanson, Owens, & Hinshaw, 2012), and does not seem to improve in children who have received stimulant medication (Ialongo et al., 1994) and extensive behavioral therapy (Hoza et al., 2004).