From the So Constans); Louisiana S Affairs Men Constans); D Orleans, Lo University o ment of P Pennsylvani
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Criminal Behavior and Repeat Violent Trauma
A Case–Control Study
John T. Nanney, PhD, Erich J. Conrad, MD, Michael McCloskey, PhD, Joseph I. Constans, PhD
u D tat tal e ui f M sy a co int St sl 7/ .do
Introduction: Repeat violent injury is common among young urban men and is increasingly a focus of trauma center–based injury prevention efforts. Though understanding risk factors for repeat violent injury may be critical in designing such interventions, this knowledge is limited. This study aims to determine which criminal behaviors, both before and after the initial trauma, predict repeat violent trauma. Gun, violent, and drug crimes are expected to increase risk of subsequent violent injury among victims of violence.
Methods: A case-control design examined trauma registry and publicly available criminal data for all male patients aged o40 years presenting for violent trauma between April 2006 and December 2011 (N¼1,142) to the sole Level 1 trauma center in a city with high rates of violence. Logistic regression was used to determine criminal behaviors predictive of repeat violent injury. Data were obtained and analyzed between January 2013 and June 2014.
Results: Regarding crimes committed before the first injury, only drug crime (OR¼5.32) predicted repeat violent trauma. With respect to crimes committed after the initial injury, illegal gun possession (OR¼2.70) predicted repeat victimization. Initiating gun (OR¼3.53) or drug crime (OR¼5.12) was associated with increased risk. Conclusions: Prior drug involvement may identify young male victims of violence as at high risk of repeat violent injury. Gun carrying and initiating drug involvement after the initial injury may increase risk of repeat injury and may be important targets for interventions aimed at preventing repeat violent trauma. (Am J Prev Med 2015;49(3):395–401) Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine
V iolent trauma plagues young men in many urban, typically African American, commun- ities.1–4 Violence is the leading cause of death for
African American men aged 18–35 years and remains a
theastern Louisiana Veterans Healthcare System (Nanney, epartment of Psychiatry (Nanney, Conrad, Constans), e University School of Medicine; South Central Veterans Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (Nanney,
partment of Psychology (Constans), Tulane University, New siana; Department of Psychological Sciences (Nanney), issouri-Saint Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri; and the Depart-
chology (McCloskey), Temple University, Philadelphia,
rrespondence to: John T. Nanney, PhD, University of Louis, Department of Psychological Sciences, 1 University